Thrombophilias: therapeutic employment of direct oral anticoagulants in venous hypercoagulable states
Thrombophilia or hypercoagulable state is a predisposition to form clots. Thrombophilia can be inherited or acquired, and prevalently involves venous vessels. Inherited thrombophilia consists of congenital conditions, as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism, Factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene mutations, natural anticoagulant deficiencies, high level of factor VIII, or dysfibrinogenemia. These congenital disorders can be responsible for venous thromboembolism, particularly deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and, less frequently, mesenteric veins thrombosis, kidneys’ veins thrombosis or retinal vein occlusion. Acquired thrombophilia can be associated both with venous and arterial thrombosis and may be caused by antiphospholipid syndrome, aging, some malignancies, oral contraceptive use, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and human immunodeficiency virus. Antiplatelets’ drugs are employed in arterial thrombosis, while, heparins/oral vitamin K antagonists are indicated for acute and long-term anticoagulation. However, new oral anticoagulants can be usefully used for venous thromboembolic events. Recent experiences demonstrated that their employment is useful in some thrombophilias only, whereas other investigations are requested to evaluate their use in all hypercoagulable disorders.
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