Main Article Content
The global prevalence of allergic diseases have increased considerably and are a major socio-economic burden. Asthma is a complex disease and understanding asthma phenotypes and endotypes could eventually lead to individualised management, and offer better symptom control and quality of life. In this review, we first summarise the pathogenesis of atopic asthma and delve into the assessment of sensitisation to aeroallergens through skin prick testing and serological testing with total and specific immunoglobulin E testing. We will then analyse the distribution of aeroallergen sensitisation patterns in the United States and Europe and its effect on the population. This review gives a comprehensive overview on atopy and it compares the prevalence and effect of atopy within various regions of both continents using data from large multicentre studies. We will conclude this review by discussing the efficacy of add-on treatments in the most prevalent severe asthma phenotypes and endotypes.