Gender differences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an update on the literature

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Elena Barbagelata
Antonello Nicolini *
Immacolata Ambrosino
Cecilia Politi
(*) Corresponding Author:
Antonello Nicolini |


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has traditionally been viewed as a disease affecting older men with a history of smoking, while being neglected and under-diagnosed in women. This scenario has changed in recent years as there has been a steady increase in COPD prevalence and mortality rates in women. The increased prevalence of COPD among women is likely attributable to several factors including the increased rates of cigarette smoking observed in women during recent years, exposure to indoor air pollution as well as increased occupational exposures since women take on previously male-dominated occupational roles related to risk exposure. In this review we have analyzed the difference in COPD phenotypes and features related to gender difference.

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