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According to the European guidelines and the American Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines, in dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), treatment target hemoglobin (Hb) values should be 11-12 g/dL without exceeding 13 g/dL. Doses of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy should be considered to achieve the target hemoglobin level. Caution is recommended in diabetic CKD patients who do not require dialysis. In patients with ischemic heart disease or a previous history of stroke, possible benefits should be assessed against an increased risk of stroke recurrence, when selecting the Hb level.
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