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Subjects with hypovolemia and/or dehydration and pre-existing renal failure are considered at highest risk for radiocontrast-medium-induced acute kidney injury (RCI-AKI), and this risk increases in the presence of glomerular filtration rate or creatinine clearance rates lower than 60 mL/min (stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease according to the National Kidney Foundation). The authors critically review the evidence-based literature on RCI-AKI, its diagnosis, epidemiological aspects, predisposing conditions, and markers of risk, including advanced age. Procedures requiring the use of iodinated contrast media are increasingly performed in patients over 70 years of age, and there is no definitive consensus regarding the role of advanced age as a marker of risk for RCI-AKI.
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