Eosinophilic pneumonias. A clinical case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with sertraline and literature review

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Roberto Serini *
Rossano Dallari
Ercole Turrini
Alberto Debbi
Chiara Benatti
Marco Grandi
(*) Corresponding Author:
Roberto Serini | paola.granata@pagepress.org

Abstract

Background: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is one of the heterogeneous group of disorders termed eosinophilic lung diseases showing an abnormal accumulation of eosinophils in distal airways, air spaces, and the interstitial compartment of the lung. AEP is characterized by acute febrile respiratory failure, a typical radiographic pattern similar to that of acute pulmonary edema, eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), a dramatic response to corticosteroid therapy with no relapse when tapering or withdrawing treatment in the absence of infection. It can be idiopathic o secondary to known causes such as drugs, or fungal and parasitic infections.
Clinical case: We report a case of a 76-year-old woman who developed symptoms, respiratory signs, and radiological and histological findings compatible with secondary AEP, we assessed as being associated with sertraline assumption (second case in literature). Discussion: The AEP we detected could be related to a secondary hypersensitivity syndrome to drug exposure (DRESS syndrome: Drug Rush with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) characterized by 1) skin rush, 2) increased eosinophilia, and 3) systemic involvement. The presence of all three criteria confirmed our diagnosis.

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