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The management of the patient with malnutrition: from evidence to clinical practice

Maria Rita Poggiano, Sara Ciarla, Paola Gnerre, Anna Roberts, Laura Magni, Laura Morbidoni, Ada Maffettone, Antonella Paradiso, Massimo Rondana, Anna Maria Schimizzi, Roberto Risicato
  • Maria Rita Poggiano
    Department of Internal Medicine, Buonconsiglio Fatebenefratelli Hospital, Napoli, Italy | marypoggiano@gmail.com
  • Sara Ciarla
    Department of Internal Medicine, Giuseppe Mazzini Hospital, Teramo, Italy
  • Paola Gnerre
    Department of Internal Medicine, San Paolo Hospital, Savona, Italy
  • Anna Roberts
    Department of Geriatrics, AUSL 4, Prato, Italy
  • Laura Magni
    Department of Internal Medicine, Sacra Famiglia Hospital, Fatebenefratelli, Erba (CO), Italy
  • Laura Morbidoni
    Department of Internal Medicine, Principe di Piemonte Hospital, Senigallia (AN), Italy
  • Ada Maffettone
    Department of Internal Medicine, AORN AO Colli, Monaldi Hospital, Napoli, Italy
  • Antonella Paradiso
    Department of Internal Medicine, Sant’Eugenio Hospital, Roma, Italy
  • Massimo Rondana
    Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Health Direction, AAS 5 Friuli Occidentale, Santa Maria degli Angeli Hospital, Pordenone, Italy
  • Anna Maria Schimizzi
    Department of Internal Medicine, Carlo Urbani Hospital, Jesi (AN), Italy
  • Roberto Risicato
    Department of Internal Medicine, Augusta Hospital, ASP Siracusa, Italy

Abstract

Malnutrition can be defined as a state of nutrition in which a deficiency or excess (or imbalance) of energy, protein and other nutrients causes measurable adverse effects on tissue/body form (body shape, size, composition) body function and clinical outcome. Malnutrition is a highly prevalent condition in the acute hospital setting with studies reporting rates of approximately 40%. Malnutrition is associated with many adverse outcomes including depression of the immune system, impaired wound healing, muscle wasting, longer lengths of hospital stay and increased mortality. Unidentified malnutrition not only heightens the risk of adverse complications for patients but results in an increase in health care costs. This can be prevented if special attention is given to their nutritional care. For this reason, hospital and healthcare organizations should have a policy and a specific set of protocols for identifying patients at nutritional risk, leading to appropriate care plans. The objective of this monograph is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the proper management of malnutrition by multi-parametric analysis of the guidelines available to date.

Keywords

Malnutrition; nutritional status; risk score.

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Submitted: 2016-06-06 23:24:04
Published: 2017-06-14 12:04:05
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Copyright (c) 2017 Maria Rita Poggiano, Sara Ciarla, Paola Gnerre, Anna Roberts, Laura Magni, Laura Morbidoni, Ada Maffettone, Antonella Paradiso, Massimo Rondana, Anna Maria Schimizzi, Roberto Risicato

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